Heritable RNA

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Authors
About the Authors 

Xudong Zhang
AFFILIATION: School of Medicine, University of California Riverside , 900 University Ave, Riverside, California, USA
Orcid icon.png https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5964-0067

Dongmei Tan
AFFILIATION: Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California Riverside , 900 University Ave, Riverside, California, USA

Enkui Duan
AFFILIATION: Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science, Chinese Academy of Science , 1 Beichen West Road, Beijing, China

Tong Zhou
AFFILIATION: Physiology and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Nevada Reno , 1664 N. Virginia St, Reno, NV, USA

Qi Chen
AFFILIATION: Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California Riverside , 900 University Ave, Riverside, California, USA
Orcid icon.png https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6353-9589



Abstract

DNA is known as the main carrier of genetic information transferring inheritable traits between generations. In addition to the DNA-sequence-based hereditary vector, a highly complex network of non-coding RNAs, along with their RNA modifications were recently found in the germ cells, providing another layer of control for a range of heritable phenotypes in multiple organisms. To induce a heritable phenotype, RNA needs to replicate itself and to induce other types of epigenetic modifications that can change gene expression in the progeny, which may be maintained in further generations, with or without the presence of initial RNA. RNAs can shuttle between somatic and germ cells, where their ‘RNA signatures’ can be modified by environmental inputs, enabling the intergenerational or transgenerational transmission of certain environmentally obtained traits. Here, we summarize and discuss recent evidence of RNA-mediated epigenetic inheritance in a range of model systems.<nowiki>Insert non-formatted text here</nowiki>

The phenomena of RNA-mediated inheritance 

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Inheritance of modified gene expression and phenotypes across generations 

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Inheritance of gene silencing by RNAi in C.elegans, yeast, and plants

Inheritable modifications of gene expression and phenotypes induced by RNAs in mammals

Inheritance of environmentally acquired traits mediated by RNAs

Inheritance of stress induced traits in non-mammalian model system

Inheritance of metabolic disorders in mammals

Inheritance of behavior traits in mammals

The mechanism of RNA-mediated inheritance

Mechanisms of RNA replication/amplification

Mechanisms of RNA-mediated action

RNA guided DNA methylation

RNA related histone modification

RNA modifications and structural effects

Future direction

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References

  1. ^ Wodak SJ, Mietchen D, Collings AM, Russell RB & Bourne PE (2012) Topic pages: PLoS Computational Biology meets Wikipedia PLoS Comput. Biol. 8:e1002446 [PMID: 22479174][DOI]